# 5th Grade Science : Describe the distribution of water on Earth

## Example Questions

### Example Question #1 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

This is a map of the Southern United States. The map uses color to show parts of Earth that are covered by land and water. The map uses white to show water vapor and precipitation in the form of a hurricane. Which of the following are shown on the map?

Water as lakes or ponds

All of the answer choices are correct

Water in the ocean

Water as vapor

All of the answer choices are correct

Explanation:

All of the examples of water are shown on the map. Water vapor is an invisible gas. Some of this water vapor condenses to form clouds. The massive storm over the Southeastern United States is an accumulation of this vapor. Water can also be seen in oceans, gulfs, ponds, and lakes across the map. Water is distributed all over Earth, and this photo is just a small collection of that water.

### Example Question #2 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

The surface of the Earth is mostly covered by _______________.

saltwater in oceans

saltwater in rivers and lakes

freshwater in oceans

freshwater in rivers and lakes

saltwater in oceans

Explanation:

According to the United States Geological Survey, "About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth's water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog. The vast majority of water on the Earth's surface, over 96 percent, is saline water in the oceans. The freshwater resources, such as water falling from the skies and moving into streams, rivers, lakes, and groundwater, provide people with the water they need every day to live. Even though you may only notice water on the Earth's surface, there is much more freshwater stored in the ground than there is in liquid form on the surface. Some of the water you see flowing in rivers comes from the seepage of groundwater into river beds. Water from precipitation continually seeps into the ground to recharge aquifers, while at the same time, water in the ground continually recharges rivers through seepage. Water is never sitting still. Thanks to the water cycle, our planet's water supply is constantly moving from one place to another and from one form to another." Overall there are said to be 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and only 3% is fresh water.

Based on this information and the photo, it can be determined that the surface of the Earth is mostly covered by saltwater from the oceans.

### Example Question #3 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

About 71% of Earth's surface is covered by water and of that 97% is saltwater located in oceans. The water in the ocean only contains about three to four percent salt. If you wanted to replicate this at home, you could mix six ounces of water with a teaspoon of salt, and it would be the same salinity as ocean water. Oceans become saltier over time as water evaporates, and small amounts of salt are carried to the oceans by rivers.

Select which statement is true.

Salt evaporates from ocean water

Most of Earth's water is found in clouds

Oceans have equal amounts of salt and water

There is salt in river water

There is salt in river water

Explanation:

The passage informs readers that the ocean only contains about three to four percent salt, so there is not an equal amount of water and salt in the oceans. The text also mentions that 97% of Earth's water is saltwater, so the majority of water is not found in clouds. Water evaporates from the ocean, not salt, and this is explained in the passage by describing how the oceans become saltier as water evaporates. This leaves rivers contain salt as the correct statement. Rivers have tiny amounts of salt in their water that is dumped into oceans.

### Example Question #1 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

Aquifers are made of ____water and found _______ the surface of the Earth.

fresh...above

salt...below

fresh...below

salt...above

fresh...below

Explanation:
Water in aquifers is fresh and located below the surface of the Earth. Only 3% of the water on Earth is made of freshwater, and aquifers are just one small source. Other freshwater sources are lakes, ponds, rivers, and water vapor. If the water is found above the surface of Earth is it called surface water. Aquifers are a type of groundwater because they are underground.

### Example Question #5 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

This graph is called a pie chart or circle graph. It shows percentages in a visual way that makes comparisons simpler.

According to this graph _____ of water is saltwater and _______ is freshwater.

91% and 3%

3% and 91%

97% and 3%

3% and 97%

97% and 3%

Explanation:

According to the United States Geological Survey, “About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog. The vast majority of water on the Earth’s surface, over 96 percent, is saline water in the oceans. The freshwater resources, such as water falling from the skies and moving into streams, rivers, lakes, and groundwater, provide people with the water they need every day to live. Even though you may only notice water on the Earth’s surface, there is much more freshwater stored in the ground than there is in liquid form on the surface. Some of the water you see flowing in rivers comes from the seepage of groundwater into river beds. Water from precipitation continually seeps into the ground to recharge aquifers, while at the same time, water in the ground continually recharges rivers through seepage. Water is never sitting still. Thanks to the water cycle, our planet’s water supply is constantly moving from one place to another and from one form to another.” Overall there are said to be 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and only 3% is freshwater.

### Example Question #6 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

Water is distributed on Earth through the never-ending water cycle. The heat from the Sun keeps the water cycling through the various stages. The Sun heats water into a vapor, which later cools and forms into the billions of droplets that make up clouds. The moisture in clouds falls back to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet. The water that falls back to Earth can be absorbed into the ground or fill lakes, ponds, oceans, and other bodies of water. The topography of the land affects the amount of precipitation that the area receives. Each site has variations in elevation, and the Earth is shaped differently, which changes the amount and type of precipitation. The process of the water cycle continues with no beginning or end, and it does not have to follow the stages in a specific order or pattern.

What is the term for the stage of the water cycle when water returns to Earth as hail, snow, rain, or sleet?

Precipitation

Condensation

Runoff

Evaporation

Precipitation

Explanation:

The stage in the water cycle that returns water to Earth is precipitation. Depending on the weather conditions, the temperature on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, and the topography of the land will determine the amount and type of precipitation. Precipitation forms when the droplets in the clouds are too heavy and fall back to Earth. Rain will fall when both the atmosphere and surface temperatures are above freezing. Hail will form when there is a thunderstorm, the temperature in the atmosphere is below freezing, and the surface temperature is above freezing. Snow forms when the temperature is below freezing in the atmosphere and on the surface of Earth. Finally, sleet is formed when the temperature in the atmosphere is above freezing, and the surface temperature is below freezing.

### Example Question #7 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

Water is distributed on Earth through the never-ending water cycle. The heat from the Sun keeps the water cycling through the various stages. The Sun heats water into a vapor, which later cools and forms into the billions of droplets that make up clouds. The moisture in clouds falls back to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet. The water that falls back to Earth can be absorbed into the ground or fill lakes, ponds, oceans, and other bodies of water. The topography of the land affects the amount of precipitation that the area receives. Each site has variations in elevation, and the Earth is shaped differently, which changes the amount and type of precipitation. The process of the water cycle continues with no beginning or end, and it does not have to follow the stages in a specific order or pattern.

What is the term for the stage in the water cycle where the water cools and forms droplets?

Condensation

Precipitation

Runoff

Evaporation

Condensation

Explanation:

The phase of the water cycle when the water cools and turns into droplets is condensation. Condensation is when water turns from a gaseous state (vapor) into a liquid state. When air with water vapor cools, the gaseous water turns to a liquid. If the conditions in the atmosphere are correct, the droplets will stick together and form clouds. When the droplets get too heavy to stay in the atmosphere, they will fall back to the Earth's surface. An example of condensation on a smaller, daily scale is the droplets that form on the outside of an ice-cold beverage glass. If you pour a cup of ice water and leave it to sit on a table, you will notice that the outside of the cup gets "sweaty." The "sweat" is the water vapor in the air, meeting the cold outside of the class and cooling back into a liquid state.

### Example Question #8 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

True or False: Water can be found on Earth in three different states of matter.

True

False

True

Explanation:

The statement "Water can be found on Earth in three different states of matter." is true. Water can be found on Earth's surface and atmosphere in three states of matter: solid, liquid, or gas. All three states of matter exist on Earth at the same time. There is water locked in frozen, solid ice-caps, water vapor (gas) in the air, which we can measure as humidity, and liquid water in oceans, lakes, and rivers.

### Example Question #9 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

Which stages of the water cycle add water directly to the oceans?

Evaporation and condensation

Runoff and precipitation

Condensation and runoff

Precipitation and evaporation

Runoff and precipitation

Explanation:

The stage in the water cycle that returns water to Earth is precipitation. Depending on the weather conditions, the temperature on the Earth’s surface and in the atmosphere, and the topography of the land will determine the amount and type of precipitation. Precipitation forms when the droplets in the clouds are too heavy and fall back to Earth. Rain will fall when both the atmosphere and surface temperatures are above freezing. Hail will form when there is a thunderstorm, the temperature in the atmosphere is below freezing, and the surface temperature is above freezing. Snow forms when the temperature is below freezing in the atmosphere and on the surface of Earth. Finally, sleet is formed when the temperature in the atmosphere is above freezing, and the surface temperature is below freezing. These types of precipitation can fall over an ocean and return the water that was previously evaporated.

Runoff is another stage in the water cycle where water is directly added to the oceans. Runoff occurs when water flows downwards due to gravity from the top of landforms such as mountains. It can be in the form of a stream or river, for example. The water returns to the ocean when the mouth of the creek or river intersects with the sea. Runoff also adds to our groundwater supplies as it soaks into the ground and aquifers.

### Example Question #1 : Describe The Distribution Of Water On Earth

Water is distributed on Earth through the never-ending water cycle. The heat from the Sun keeps the water cycling through the various stages. The Sun heats water into a vapor, which later cools and forms into the billions of droplets that make up clouds. The moisture in clouds falls back to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet. The water that falls back to Earth can be absorbed into the ground or fill lakes, ponds, oceans, and other bodies of water. The topography of the land affects the amount of precipitation that the area receives. Each site has variations in elevation, and the Earth is shaped differently, which changes the amount and type of precipitation. The process of the water cycle continues with no beginning or end, and it does not have to follow the stages in a specific order or pattern.

What is the term for the stage of the water cycle where water is heated by the Sun and turns into a vapor?

Precipitation

Runoff

Condensation

Evaporation